SecurityBundle Configuration (“security”)

The security system is one of the most powerful parts of Symfony, and can largely be controlled via its configuration.

Full default Configuration

The following is the full default configuration for the security system. Each part will be explained in the next section.

2.5 新版功能: Support for restricting security firewalls to specific http methods was introduced in Symfony 2.5.

  • YAML
    # app/config/security.yml
    security:
        access_denied_url:    ~ # Example: /foo/error403
    
        # strategy can be: none, migrate, invalidate
        session_fixation_strategy:  migrate
        hide_user_not_found:  true
        always_authenticate_before_granting:  false
        erase_credentials:    true
        access_decision_manager:
            strategy:             affirmative
            allow_if_all_abstain:  false
            allow_if_equal_granted_denied:  true
        acl:
    
            # any name configured in doctrine.dbal section
            connection:           ~
            cache:
                id:                   ~
                prefix:               sf2_acl_
            provider:             ~
            tables:
                class:                acl_classes
                entry:                acl_entries
                object_identity:      acl_object_identities
                object_identity_ancestors:  acl_object_identity_ancestors
                security_identity:    acl_security_identities
            voter:
                allow_if_object_identity_unavailable:  true
    
        encoders:
            # Examples:
            Acme\DemoBundle\Entity\User1: sha512
            Acme\DemoBundle\Entity\User2:
                algorithm:           sha512
                encode_as_base64:    true
                iterations:          5000
    
            # PBKDF2 encoder
            # see the note about PBKDF2 below for details on security and speed
            Acme\Your\Class\Name:
                algorithm:            pbkdf2
                hash_algorithm:       sha512
                encode_as_base64:     true
                iterations:           1000
                key_length:           40
    
            # Example options/values for what a custom encoder might look like
            Acme\DemoBundle\Entity\User3:
                id:                   my.encoder.id
    
            # BCrypt encoder
            # see the note about bcrypt below for details on specific dependencies
            Acme\DemoBundle\Entity\User4:
                algorithm:            bcrypt
                cost:                 13
    
            # Plaintext encoder
            # it does not do any encoding
            Acme\DemoBundle\Entity\User5:
                algorithm:            plaintext
                ignore_case:          false
    
        providers:            # Required
            # Examples:
            my_in_memory_provider:
                memory:
                    users:
                        foo:
                            password:           foo
                            roles:              ROLE_USER
                        bar:
                            password:           bar
                            roles:              [ROLE_USER, ROLE_ADMIN]
    
            my_entity_provider:
                entity:
                    class:              SecurityBundle:User
                    property:           username
                    # name of a non-default entity manager
                    manager_name:       ~
    
            # Example custom provider
            my_some_custom_provider:
                id:                   ~
    
            # Chain some providers
            my_chain_provider:
                chain:
                    providers:          [ my_in_memory_provider, my_entity_provider ]
    
        firewalls:            # Required
            # Examples:
            somename:
                pattern: .*
                # restrict the firewall to a specific host
                host: admin\.example\.com
                 # restrict the firewall to specific http methods
                methods: [GET, POST]
                request_matcher: some.service.id
                access_denied_url: /foo/error403
                access_denied_handler: some.service.id
                entry_point: some.service.id
                provider: some_key_from_above
                # manages where each firewall stores session information
                # See "Firewall Context" below for more details
                context: context_key
                stateless: false
                x509:
                    provider: some_key_from_above
                remote_user:
                    provider: some_key_from_above
                http_basic:
                    provider: some_key_from_above
                http_digest:
                    provider: some_key_from_above
                form_login:
                    # submit the login form here
                    check_path: /login_check
    
                    # the user is redirected here when they need to log in
                    login_path: /login
    
                    # if true, forward the user to the login form instead of redirecting
                    use_forward: false
    
                    # login success redirecting options (read further below)
                    always_use_default_target_path: false
                    default_target_path:            /
                    target_path_parameter:          _target_path
                    use_referer:                    false
    
                    # login failure redirecting options (read further below)
                    failure_path:    /foo
                    failure_forward: false
                    failure_path_parameter: _failure_path
                    failure_handler: some.service.id
                    success_handler: some.service.id
    
                    # field names for the username and password fields
                    username_parameter: _username
                    password_parameter: _password
    
                    # csrf token options
                    csrf_parameter: _csrf_token
                    intention:      authenticate
                    csrf_provider:  my.csrf_provider.id
    
                    # by default, the login form *must* be a POST, not a GET
                    post_only:      true
                    remember_me:    false
    
                    # by default, a session must exist before submitting an authentication request
                    # if false, then Request::hasPreviousSession is not called during authentication
                    # new in Symfony 2.3
                    require_previous_session: true
    
                remember_me:
                    token_provider: name
                    key: someS3cretKey
                    name: NameOfTheCookie
                    lifetime: 3600 # in seconds
                    path: /foo
                    domain: somedomain.foo
                    secure: false
                    httponly: true
                    always_remember_me: false
                    remember_me_parameter: _remember_me
                logout:
                    path:   /logout
                    target: /
                    invalidate_session: false
                    delete_cookies:
                        a: { path: null, domain: null }
                        b: { path: null, domain: null }
                    handlers: [some.service.id, another.service.id]
                    success_handler: some.service.id
                anonymous: ~
    
            # Default values and options for any firewall
            some_firewall_listener:
                pattern:              ~
                security:             true
                request_matcher:      ~
                access_denied_url:    ~
                access_denied_handler:  ~
                entry_point:          ~
                provider:             ~
                stateless:            false
                context:              ~
                logout:
                    csrf_parameter:       _csrf_token
                    csrf_provider:        ~
                    intention:            logout
                    path:                 /logout
                    target:               /
                    success_handler:      ~
                    invalidate_session:   true
                    delete_cookies:
    
                        # Prototype
                        name:
                            path:                 ~
                            domain:               ~
                    handlers:             []
                anonymous:
                    key:                  4f954a0667e01
                switch_user:
                    provider:             ~
                    parameter:            _switch_user
                    role:                 ROLE_ALLOWED_TO_SWITCH
    
        access_control:
            requires_channel:     ~
    
            # use the urldecoded format
            path:                 ~ # Example: ^/path to resource/
            host:                 ~
            ips:                  []
            methods:              []
            roles:                []
        role_hierarchy:
            ROLE_ADMIN:      [ROLE_ORGANIZER, ROLE_USER]
            ROLE_SUPERADMIN: [ROLE_ADMIN]
    

Form Login Configuration

When using the form_login authentication listener beneath a firewall, there are several common options for configuring the “form login” experience.

For even more details, see How to Customize your Form Login.

The Login Form and Process

login_path

type: string default: /login

This is the route or path that the user will be redirected to (unless use_forward is set to true) when they try to access a protected resource but isn’t fully authenticated.

This path must be accessible by a normal, un-authenticated user, else you may create a redirect loop. For details, see “Avoid Common Pitfalls”.

check_path

type: string default: /login_check

This is the route or path that your login form must submit to. The firewall will intercept any requests (POST requests only, by default) to this URL and process the submitted login credentials.

Be sure that this URL is covered by your main firewall (i.e. don’t create a separate firewall just for check_path URL).

use_forward

type: Boolean default: false

If you’d like the user to be forwarded to the login form instead of being redirected, set this option to true.

username_parameter

type: string default: _username

This is the field name that you should give to the username field of your login form. When you submit the form to check_path, the security system will look for a POST parameter with this name.

password_parameter

type: string default: _password

This is the field name that you should give to the password field of your login form. When you submit the form to check_path, the security system will look for a POST parameter with this name.

post_only

type: Boolean default: true

By default, you must submit your login form to the check_path URL as a POST request. By setting this option to false, you can send a GET request to the check_path URL.

Redirecting after Login

  • always_use_default_target_path (type: Boolean, default: false)
  • default_target_path (type: string, default: /)
  • target_path_parameter (type: string, default: _target_path)
  • use_referer (type: Boolean, default: false)

Using the PBKDF2 Encoder: Security and Speed

The PBKDF2 encoder provides a high level of Cryptographic security, as recommended by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

You can see an example of the pbkdf2 encoder in the YAML block on this page.

But using PBKDF2 also warrants a warning: using it (with a high number of iterations) slows down the process. Thus, PBKDF2 should be used with caution and care.

A good configuration lies around at least 1000 iterations and sha512 for the hash algorithm.

Using the BCrypt Password Encoder

警告

To use this encoder, you either need to use PHP Version 5.5 or install the ircmaxell/password-compat library via Composer.

  • YAML
    # app/config/security.yml
    security:
        # ...
    
        encoders:
            Symfony\Component\Security\Core\User\User:
                algorithm: bcrypt
                cost:      15
    
  • XML
    <!-- app/config/security.xml -->
    <config>
        <!-- ... -->
        <encoder
            class="Symfony\Component\Security\Core\User\User"
            algorithm="bcrypt"
            cost="15"
        />
    </config>
    
  • PHP
    // app/config/security.php
    $container->loadFromExtension('security', array(
        // ...
        'encoders' => array(
            'Symfony\Component\Security\Core\User\User' => array(
                'algorithm' => 'bcrypt',
                'cost'      => 15,
            ),
        ),
    ));
    

The cost can be in the range of 4-31 and determines how long a password will be encoded. Each increment of cost doubles the time it takes to encode a password.

If you don’t provide the cost option, the default cost of 13 is used.

注解

You can change the cost at any time — even if you already have some passwords encoded using a different cost. New passwords will be encoded using the new cost, while the already encoded ones will be validated using a cost that was used back when they were encoded.

A salt for each new password is generated automatically and need not be persisted. Since an encoded password contains the salt used to encode it, persisting the encoded password alone is enough.

注解

All the encoded passwords are 60 characters long, so make sure to allocate enough space for them to be persisted.

Firewall Context

Most applications will only need one firewall. But if your application does use multiple firewalls, you’ll notice that if you’re authenticated in one firewall, you’re not automatically authenticated in another. In other words, the systems don’t share a common “context”: each firewall acts like a separate security system.

However, each firewall has an optional context key (which defaults to the name of the firewall), which is used when storing and retrieving security data to and from the session. If this key were set to the same value across multiple firewalls, the “context” could actually be shared:

  • YAML
    # app/config/security.yml
    security:
        # ...
    
        firewalls:
            somename:
                # ...
                context: my_context
            othername:
                # ...
                context: my_context
    
  • XML
    <!-- app/config/security.xml -->
    <security:config>
        <firewall name="somename" context="my_context">
            <! ... ->
        </firewall>
        <firewall name="othername" context="my_context">
            <! ... ->
        </firewall>
    </security:config>
    
  • PHP
    // app/config/security.php
    $container->loadFromExtension('security', array(
        'firewalls' => array(
            'somename' => array(
                // ...
                'context' => 'my_context'
            ),
            'othername' => array(
                // ...
                'context' => 'my_context'
            ),
        ),
    ));
    

HTTP-Digest Authentication

To use HTTP-Digest authentication you need to provide a realm and a key:

  • YAML
    # app/config/security.yml
    security:
        firewalls:
            somename:
                http_digest:
                    key: "a_random_string"
                    realm: "secure-api"
    
  • XML
    <!-- app/config/security.xml -->
    <security:config>
        <firewall name="somename">
            <http-digest key="a_random_string" realm="secure-api" />
        </firewall>
    </security:config>
    
  • PHP
    // app/config/security.php
    $container->loadFromExtension('security', array(
        'firewalls' => array(
            'somename' => array(
                'http_digest' => array(
                    'key'   => 'a_random_string',
                    'realm' => 'secure-api',
                ),
            ),
        ),
    ));